What to Expect
Fighting cancer is challenging. To help you prepare for the fight, here is a brief outline of what you can expect during treatment with radiotherapy or radiosurgery. The details of some of the steps may differ, depending on your particular case.
Step 1: The Consultation
First, you'll meet with your doctor, a radiation oncologist, to discuss your treatment. Based on your specific case, your oncologist will tell you what type of radiation therapy he or she recommends, whether it will be given alone or in conjunction with other treatment methods, what the specific goals of treatment are, and what side effects you may experience. You can talk to your radiation oncologist about your treatment options and make a decision together. The consultation is also an excellent opportunity for you to ask your oncologist whatever questions you may have. Click here for a list of common questions.
Step 2: Imaging
In order for the radiation oncologist to design your treatment, the exact size and location of the tumor must first be determined. This is usually done by using scans to create a detailed 3-D image of the treatment area. The scans usually include a CT scan, but they can also include an MRI, PET scan, and ultrasound scan. Your oncologist can rotate the image on his computer screen to view the tumor from every angle.
It is very important that the position in which you are scanned is reproduced at the time of treatment. Sometimes temporary skin marks and even tiny tattoos (about the size of a freckle) are made on your body to help the radiation therapist (RT) position you correctly each day for treatment.
Step 3: Treatment Planning
After imaging is complete, the radiation oncologist will meet with the medical physicist and dosimetrist to design a treatment plan that's been customized for you. After taking into account the location and type of cancer you have, your medical history, lab tests, and other factors, your treatment team will use sophisticated computer software to assist them in prescribing the exact volume to be treated, the total amount of radiation that will be delivered to the tumor, the angles for the radiation beams, how many treatments you should have, and what kind of machine to use.
Step 4: Getting Positioned for Treatment
Before each day's treatment, you may be asked to change into a gown. Then the radiation therapist will help you get positioned on the treatment "couch" — a platform designed to work with the radiation machine. The couch will be adjusted so a laser light shines on the mark that was put on your skin, helping to position you correctly. Depending on the type of machine you’re treated on, your treatment team may take a scan immediately prior to treatment, while you are on the couch. The purpose of this new scan is to show if the tumor has changed in size or position since the first one was created during imaging. If it reveals any changes, the RT will make the necessary adjustments to the position of the couch to ensure that you are properly aligned for treatment.
Step 5: Treatment Begins
The radiation is delivered by a machine called a linear accelerator, or linac. Most linacs have a gantry, which is the head of the machine. The gantry houses a device called a multi-leaf collimator that "shapes" the radiation beam so it conforms to the shape of the tumor from any given angle. During your treatment, the gantry will move around you to deliver the radiation. The radiation beam is not visible to the eye, so you will not see it when it leaves the gantry.
Respiratory gating is sometimes used during radiation treatment for lung cancer. This technique enables your team studies the motion of your chest as you breathe. A small cube called a chest block is placed on your chest to monitor the position of your lungs and your breathing cycle. The chest block transmits a signal to the control room, where your radiation therapist can observe the pattern of your breathing and control the delivery of the radiation. The chest block tells the therapist if you’re breathing the same way as you were during imaging, or if the timing of the radiation beam needs to be adjusted to make sure that exposure to sensitive organs is minimized. Your team may also take additional scans to see if your internal organs or the position of the tumor have shifted. Both pieces of information — your breathing and the position of your organs — need to be captured at the same time in order to deliver the most accurate treatment possible.
Your first two treatments may take 15 minutes or more, as your radiation therapist helps you get into position and takes images to verify that your setup on the machine is the same as the treatment plan. Subsequent treatments, however, are often shorter. In fact, some treatments — from entering the waiting room to leaving the clinic — can take as little as 12 to 30 minutes.
Step 6: Post-Treatment and Follow-Ups
You may experience some side effects from radiotherapy or radiosurgery. If you do, they might not begin until after several sessions because the effects of radiation treatment are cumulative. Talk to your oncologist before and during treatment if you have any questions or experience discomfort. Click here to learn more about possible side effects.
After your treatment has ended, your radiation oncologist will recommend a schedule for periodic checkups to monitor the results. Typically, the first checkup is given in one to three months, and subsequent checkups are scheduled at six-month intervals, but yours may be more or less frequent, depending upon your situation. If symptoms or clinical circumstances suggest a recurrence, diagnostic tests such as blood tests, ultrasound, CT scans, MRIs, chest x-rays (CXR), or bone scans may be needed.